Petroglyphs of Toleubulak

Name of monument: Petroglyphs of Toleubulak

Form of monument: Sacral object

Date of monument: Rock era

Location: Aktobe oblast, Mugalzhar region, in 13 km to north-east from Bulakty
village in 1,5 km to the north from Toleubulak winter hut.

Researches: Petroglyphs of Toleubulak cave were discovered and researched in
2000 by a joint Kazakh-Russian international expedition, who investigated the
monuments of the Stone Age in the Mugalzhar region. The heads of the international
expedition were academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, doctor of historical
sciences and archeologist A. P. Derevyanko, professor V. T. Petrin and Zh. K.
Taimagambetov, and other archeologists and scientists as well. In addition, in 2006, a
further research was carried out by a specialist from the Institute of Archeology named
after A. Margulan, an archaeologist and a specialist from the Institute of Archeology of
the Republic of Kazakhstan. A. Margulan, by Z. Samashev the archeologist, candidate
of historical sciences.

Brief description: In Toleubulak cave, more than 10 thousand years ago, Stone
Age people drew images. There are pictures carved on the floor of the cave, 5 cm deep
and 15-25 cm in diameter. The petroglyphs are found in the small cave, look like hoofs
or mushrooms, anthropomorphic and deep lines. Scientists hold the opinion that the
above-mentioned symbols existed during the Mesolithic, and even in Paleolithic and
Neolithic times. This complex is one of the ancient archaeological monuments of the
Stone Age in Kazakhstan. However, some researchers suggest that these symbols are
probably the oldest symbols on earth that appeared hundreds of thousands of years

Legend: The cave was named after Toleu of the Zhakaiym family, of the Shekti
Junior Juz, who had migrated to the Mugalzhar Mountains from the North Aral about
250-300 years ago.