Study of ethnographic antiquities of the Aktobe region

Monuments of memorial and cult architecture, which are one of the most interesting and little-studied objects, have attracted the attention of travelers and researchers since ancient times. In general, information about the monuments of Western Kazakhstan began to come back in the Middle Ages, when travelers and diplomats first passed through this territory. So a lot of information was left to us by diplomats Ahmed ibn Fadlan, Guillaume de Rubruk, ibn Battuta, etc.

At the beginning of the XIII century. In connection with the growing political interest of the Russian Empire in Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries, attention to the monuments of the nomadic population of Western Kazakhstan is increasing. The messages of the famous scientists P.I. Rychkova, P.S. Pallas, I.P. Falk, etc.

One of the first among the Russian scientific intelligentsia to pay attention to the monuments of the Aktobe region was P.I. Rychkov. So, in his works, he mentions the ancient brick buildings along the river. Ilek in the area of ​​the Iletsk defense, about ancient buildings in the Baitak tract (Abat Baytak necropolis), the Maulemberdy tract, etc. This period includes the first information about the cult complex Balgasyn, the monument to Abulkhair Khan and other objects of cultural heritage that can be found in the works of P.S. Pallas, I.P. Falk.

By the XIX – early XX century. information about architectural monuments not only increases, but becomes more diverse and detailed. It should be noted that in the works of researchers of this time, there is a scientific approach to the description and study of objects of historical and cultural heritage. E. Eversman notes the location of old tombs to the south of Aktobe, at the confluence of the Tamdy and Ilek rivers. A.I. Levshin in his work “Description of the Kyrgyz-Cossack, or Kyrgyz-Kaisak, hordes and steppes”, relying on the works of previous years, gives information about the ancient structures on the river. Big Kobda in the Baitak tract, ancient cemeteries along the Turgai, Sagyz, Uil rivers, etc.

By the end of the XIX – beginning of the XX century. in the steppe of Western Kazakhstan in order to study the historical past, such scientists as A. Kharuzin (Bukeevskaya Horde) and I.A. Castania to the Ural and Turgai regions. In 1910 and 1911. member of the Orenburg Scientific Archive Commission I.A. Castanier publishes two main works devoted to the monuments of Kazakhstan in general. These works are one of the first editions to fully cover the monuments from a scientific point of view. It is impossible not to mention other members of the commission as A.V. Popov, A. Matov, S.P. Bannov. in their reports have repeatedly mentioned the monuments of antiquity.

By the middle of the XX century. with the development of domestic historical science, such prominent scientists as T.K. Basenov and M.M. Mendikulov. In 1946, mainly on the territory of the Baiganinsky region (from the middle reaches of the Emba River to the Sam sands), T.K. Basenov.

A lot of works on the monuments of memorial and cult architecture were dedicated by M.M. Mendikulov. Purposeful study of such large monuments of Mangystau, Ustyurt and the valley of the river. Emba (for example, Asan-kozha, Nurmambet, Asriep-Musriep, etc.) allowed M.M. Mendikulov to create the first classification of burial and cult structures, and also to consider the issues of their origin and development.

In the same years, the steppes of Western Kazakhstan, mainly the territory of the Ustyurt plateau, were explored by the Khorezm archaeological and ethnographic expedition led by S.P. Tolstov. It is also known that the famous archaeologist A.Kh. Margulan of the Abat-Baytak necropolis.

A new stage in the history of the study of architectural monuments of Western Kazakhstan begins in the 70s of the XX century. This is primarily due to the state policy, the main purpose of which was the identification, certification and restoration of monuments. Expeditions organized by the Ministry of Culture and the Society for the Protection of Monuments examined a huge number of objects of historical and cultural heritage.

In the late 70s – 80s, the intensity and nature of the study of architectural monuments of Western Kazakhstan changed. We know the expeditions of the Ministry of Culture in 1978-1980, the Society for the Protection of Monuments in 1982-1984. Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR in 1987-1988 and in 1990. under the leadership and with the participation of S.E. Azhigali. In addition, in addition to Mangyshlak and Ustyurt, the territory of the Northern Aral Sea region is being studied.