Name of the monument: Zhamansh and n meteorite crater
Typological affiliation: sacred object
Dating of the monument: 1 million years ago
Location of the monument: Irgiz district, 40 km south-west of the district center
Historical information:geomorphological meteorite crater in the Irgiz district of the Aktobe region. Zhamanshin crater is located 40 km south of the Irgiz village. The crater reaches 10 kilometers in diameter, and there is also a less pronounced outer ring. The radiological age is 12 million years. Scientists assume that the composition of the meteorite was stone, since fragments of meteorite iron were not found in the crater and the surrounding area. The meteorite fell on solid rocks, and from the impact they turned into dense vitreous bodies with inclusions of various minerals and debris. These rocks remelted during the impact are called impacttids, which means “turned into glass.” Native nickel, nickel iron, rare minerals, and small diamond crystals were found in impactides. According to the results of radiogenic analysis, the age of the crater is about 1 million years ago (according to other estimates, up to 53 million years). According to the most widely accepted hypothesis, it was formed as a result of a meteorite (possibly an asteroid or comet nucleus) falling to Earth with a diameter of 200 to 400 meters, which evaporated during the explosion. At the time of the explosion, the ambient temperature in the area of the fall reached 1700 ° C. Immediately after the explosion, the depth of the crater was at least 500 meters (possibly even 1000 meters). At present, the maximum height difference is 250 – 300 meters. E.P. Isoh for many years developed the hypothesis of the origin of tektites, according to which the age of the crater is about 10 thousand years. The meteorite fell on solid rocks, and from the impact they turned into dense vitreous bodies with inclusions of various minerals and debris. This hypothesis makes it possible to eliminate the contradiction between the radiogenic age of the crater tektites and the age of geological rocks around the crater, in which there is an impact interlayer associated with the formation of the crater (E.P. Izokh, L.L. Kashkarov, L.I. Genaeva). This is one of the few tektite (irgizite) deposits on Earth and the only crater in which tektites and impactites are simultaneously found. Leschatellerite (foamed quartz) and trivalent titanium are also found in the crater. A joint expedition of scientists from Russia, Canada, France, USA, Germany and Kazakhstan in 1989 suggests that the fall of the meteorite at one time changed the natural geochemical environment and became a forbidden place for a long time. As a result of the explosion, the energy of which reached tens of thousands of megaton bombs, a crater 700 m deep and 5.5 km in diameter was formed, surrounded by a shaft 1, 5 – 3.0 km. The molten earth rocks lifted by the explosion fell to the ground, freezing like drops. Scientists have put forward a proposal to create a geological landscape reserve. The tremendous pressure and unimaginable temperature destroyed the planet’s surfaces. At some point, the earth’s crust in a small area of the Aral Sea region became liquid. Waves went through the molten magma, just as they come from a stone thrown into a puddle. The shock wave lifted the rocks, shifted, and overturned the layers. This is how the inner wall of the Zhamanshin crater was formed. The substances evaporated during the explosion were coordinated, hardened and fell to the ground as a rain of special glasses – tektites. Zhamanshin tektites are called irgizites after the Irgiz river. Irgizites were born on Earth a million years ago. But parts of their substance are 4000 times older than the “black splashes”. Tektites are a rare phenomenon on our planet. No more than a dozen of their locations are known throughout the world. However, Irgizites are unique even in such a small company.
Description and characteristics of the monument: Researchers found that the Zhamanshin crater was formed as a result of a large meteorite obliquely falling to the ground in 075-1, 1 million years ago from the southeast to the northwest. The depression is 5-6 kilometers in diameter, the bottom is flat, and the depth is 700 meters. The diameter of the meteorite reaches 200-400 meters.