Necropolis Abat-Baytak

A unique sculptural monument Abat – Baitak dating back to the Golden Horde (XIV – XIV centuries) is located in the Khobdinsky district of the Aktobe region, 12 km. from the village of Beskop. There are no surviving analogues of such a structure on the territory of Kazakhstan. Similar monuments of the portal-hipped roof can be found in the Chelyabinsk region of Russia, Bashkiria, Azerbaijan. The mausoleum was erected from baked bricks – local raw bricks. For its greater strength, ancient craftsmen used milk and horsehair in the manufacture of such bricks. Now the height of the mausoleum is 14.5 m, but scientists believe that it once reached 16 m. The base of the monument is tetrahedral: 8×8, which refers to the style of the Middle Ages. Even from afar, the dome of the structure is striking: a rounded drum type, with 11 edges drawn in the form of false windows. Above is the dome part, similar to a tent. Therefore, the mausoleum is referred to as a hipped roof. It is believed that earlier the domed part was decorated with blue tiles, shining in the sun, served as a steppe beacon in this area. The tetrahedral front part of the mausoleum was named “portal”. It was restored during restoration work in 2004-2006.

Who is the author of this unique building remains a mystery. However, it is known in honor of whom the mausoleum was built. The monument was erected in honor of the son of the famous Kazakh utopian philosopher Asan kaygy – Abat. According to legend, the Abat-Baytak mausoleum was built on the place of the death of Abat batyr. Abat fell from a camel during a wedding procession crossing. Within a short time, people full of sorrow spread the message around the world, from that moment the prefix Baitak appeared to the name of the Abbot.

The Abat-Baytak mausoleum was first studied at the end of the 18th century by the Russian scientist P. I. Rychkov, he calls it “Baytak”. According to the classification of Kazakh mausoleums, Abat-Baytak belongs to the portal-domed structures, two-storey coverings and “tent mausoleums”. Today the historical portal of the monument has been completely destroyed. During excavations carried out at the burial site, the remains of three people were found. These places are still fraught with a lot of unknown. Around the Abat – Baitak mausoleum there is a whole chain of burial mounds – burial grounds, cult monuments, kulpytases. This allows us to say that when there was a large city here, presumably, it was called Baytak. But, of course, it is Abat-Baytak that bears the greatest historical value, being the central link of ancient buildings and local medieval history.